Urine drug tests are used to search for trace amounts of drugs identified within a persons biological urine specimen. An administrator of the test provides the individual with a specimen cup and directs them to the bathroom where a specimen sample can be captured.
The way a urine drug test functions and finds drugs is through metabolites. Once consumed drugs are metabolized, as a process of the body breaking them down. The urine test method is reliable due to the fact that humans break drugs down the same way.
Antibodies , also referred to as immunoglobulins, are glycoproteins naturally produced in response to invading foreign particles. They combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood. If an individual has metabolites in their system from using drugs, antibodies will bind to them and cause a reaction.
The test strips on a drug test kit are made of an absorbent material created for the purpose of transferring the specimen up the strip for evaluation. Strips contain chemical compounds designed to react with components of the specimen. First, the urine sample encounters special molecules and migrates them up the test strip where they will interact with drug-specific antibodies that only react to metabolites for the specific drug being tested.
If an individual has metabolites in their system from using drugs, antibodies will bind to them and cause a reaction. If the urine sample does not contain the specific drug metabolites being tested for, the special molecules react with the antibodies to turn color.
Perks of Urine Drugs of Abuse Testing
How far back can a urine test find drugs?
- Economical - Urine drug test kits are the most affordable method of drug testing
- Longer Detection Times
- Most Established Testing Method
- Quick Positive or Negative reading within 5 minutes.
- Results that are reliable
- Better selection of drugs to test for
Detection times vary due to multiple factors. The human body evaluates a drug as a toxin and seeks to expel it by breaking it down for the purpose of elimination.
What is a "False" Positive?
- Usage Frequency
- Drug Tolerance
- Fluid Intake
- Body Size
- Adipose Tissue (body fat)
- Some drugs break down quicker while others take longer
An instance where the test result is positive even though the initial target drug is not present in the sample. The most common causes of a false positive drug test are
cross-reactants. Certain foods and medicines, diet plans, drugs, and nutritional supplements may also cause a false positive test result.
What is a "False" Negative?
An instance where the initial target drug is present in the sample but is not detected by the test kit. If the sample is diluted, or if the sample is tainted, or contaminated with a substance this could cause false negative results.